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[技巧] 如何改善豚式踢

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[技巧] 豚式踢 How to improve dolphin kick?

程 度:★★★ 進階

難 度:★★★ 高
重要性:★★★ 很重要

在跳水出發後在水中這段可以用自由式的 flutter kick 或是 dolphin kick 豚式踢。現今的精英選手幾乎都是採用豚式踢,因為水中豚式踢的速度最快。著名的費爾普斯 Michael Phelps 最有力的武器便是「豚式踢」。從 YouTube 影片中看那些選手的「豚式踢」都十分輕鬆,但是自己到泳池去試卻發現完全不是這麼回事

這被稱為第五式的「豚式」不是那麼容易的,最難的便是身體的「波動」(undulation)。 這種以下半身的律動帶動雙腿打水前進的方式很不容易練,下半身要像水波一般的「波動」,上半身要保持不動:雙手打直,兩掌疊緊扣。

「豚式踢」用仰式比較好練,所以可以先用仰式來練習。待能掌握「波動」的技巧後再翻回面向下的「正常」方式。如果能借助蛙鞋的話,那就容易些;赤腳,通常要多花許多時間才能掌握到身體協調的方式。

[大師班] Misty Hyman 教豚式踢 (dolphin kick)

之前曾介紹過 Misty Hyman 的大師班,她練習豚式踢的方式是從大的「波動」,然後漸漸做小。Misty 的方式身體的柔軟度很重要,柔軟度不好的可能無法用這種方法。正確的,或說是最佳的「波動」當是小幅度,而非大幅度的。用腰的力量來帶動;小腿向上時(上踢)膝蓋不可過彎,腳尖稍為墊起來,用腳背打水;下踢時腳尖為轉向內(medially),下踢後臀部翹高。上踢、下踢動作要連續,下踢後不要停頓。



How to Improve Your Dolphin Kick
updated at 10:16pm, July 24, 2012

If you’ve watched Olympic backstrokers compete, you were probably blown away by their extremely powerful underwater dolphin kicks. The flexibility in their hips and knees looks almost inhuman. Trying to mimic these kicks can often feel impossible.

If you’re having trouble mastering underwaters, don’t feel too discouraged! One of the many reasons why they’re referred to as “The Fifth Stroke” is because they’re so difficult. They’re also important: Improving dolphin kicks can drastically improve your overall time in meets, and efficiency in practice. If you want to make your underwaters more powerful, check out the following tips.

Use Your Body


When you think of kicking, you might assume that you use solely your legs. On the contrary, you should engage your whole body as you kick.

Why Use Dolphin Kicks

One of the fastest parts of a race is right after a turn when you push off the wall. After you push off the wall, you usually kick to maintain speed. To speed up your underwaters, try out dolphin kicks instead of flutter kicks. Dolphin kicks are generally far more powerful in a race.

Flutter kicks, although quick, do not increase speed off the wall as much as dolphin kicks. Dolphin kicks are a lot more powerful, and incorporate more of your body than just the legs.

Keep Your Core Tight

While practicing dolphin kicks, always keep your core tight. This will hold your shoulders still while you propel yourself with the bottom half of your body. Keep your arms completely still. As you push off the wall, tighten your stomach, straighten your back, and concentrate on having a relatively low amplitude kick.

If you have a large amplitude kick, then you’re increasing the distance of your swim. Think about it: Swimming in a wavy line is a much longer distance than swimming a straight line. Tightening your core will move your body directly forward, rather than up and down.

Practice on Your Back

Dolphin kicks are easier on your back. If you’re having trouble learning proper technique with your dolphin kicks, flip over and practice on your back. You can keep your core tighter while maintaining movement in your body.

Feel a Ripple

Sometimes people kick very rigidly on their dolphin kicks. Instead of having a jerky movement with a pause at the end of the downward kick, try to keep your feet moving. As soon as your feet finish the downward movement, start to move them upward. The kicks should be fluid. You should feel a flow from your hips to your toes.

Speed Up

Hot Tip: Practice with Fins
In order to speed up the kick, practice with fins. Not only will this help you get the hang of the quick, fluid motion you need, but it will also strengthen your muscles for powerful underwaters. Fins will specifically help build the muscles in your ankles, calves, and core.

Many swimmers try to have large, slow dolphin kicks as they leave the wall. The dolphin kicks should be quick. Try to control the amplitude of the kick so you can speed it up. If you watch Olympians, their feet are almost a blur because they kick so fast. Watch it in slow motion, though, and you’ll see both the amplitude and fluidity of their kicks.

The Right Size Kick

Sometimes it’s hard to determine the right amplitude the kick should be. Trying to maintain a “relatively low amplitude kick” can seem vague. Since everyone is built differently, every swimmer’s kick will be slightly different. In this case, you need to feel it out.

Too Big

If the kick is too big, you will feel powerful. At the same time, though, you’re likely creating too much resistance this way. Ultimately, you’re exerting a lot of effort without moving forward that quickly. You’ll waste time and effort without much payoff.

Too Small

If the kick is too small, you will feel fast. However, you won’t be pushing enough water to efficiently propel yourself. Even though you’re moving quickly, the kicks are still not as powerful as they can be.

Find a Balance

In order to have the most proficient kick, you’ll have to find a middle-ground between the two. You need to find a way to incorporate both power and speed. Play around with the kick and try out different techniques.

Start with a really large kick. Time yourself to see how long it takes to reach your break out point. Just make sure that you’re breaking out at the same place each time. This way you can keep track of your time accurately. Then, kick as small as you can and time yourself again. After you’ve done this a few times, make adjustments to the kick and observe what helps decrease your time.

Practice Makes Perfect

Now that you know how underwater should look and feel, try them out. Practice different amplitudes of the kick, and see what feels best. With a little practice and adjustments, you’ll be kicking better in no time!

http://swim.isport.com/swimming-guides/how-to-improve-your-underwater-dolphin-kick

edited: April 21, 2013
Oct. 6, Oct. / 5, 2012

台長: frank

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