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[技巧] 如何游仰式 backstroke

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程度:基礎

仰式是我做弱的一項。這幾年來每次練仰式總會傷到肩膀,尤其是左肩。因為左手較沒力,因此當動作不協調時,手常會用力來平衡身體,左手的肌力較弱,因此常因些違反人體工學的突然出力傷了筋骨、肌肉。上網查了相關資料,許多文章都指出肩膀是游泳最容易發生運動傷害的部位,而仰式也是最容易引運動傷害的一式。所以練仰式切記不要太用力,如果身體失去平衡或動作的協調性不再,不要用手勁試圖扳回來,不妨就站起來或是平躺著漂浮一下。

下面的文章已經有技巧說明,所以我就不再贅訴。不過先練習平躺在水上打水是最好的基本功,也很簡單。


1. 雙手高舉過頭,雙臂打直,一手掌貼在另一手掌背上,在上的手拇指扣住在下手掌,平躺在水上,雙腳打水。
2. 眼睛就盯著天花板,脖子放輕鬆,腰往上挺。


另外,從上面那個 Speedo Pace Club 的影片中發現的小技巧:手掌在入水前微微翹起,然後由手掌(腕關節)帶動肩膀,整支手臂往尺骨(小指)方向旋轉後入水。接著曲肘把手掌帶近肩膀,再向下(往腳的方向)、向後(背部)推水。

唯一要提醒的是在(手)划時,手掌還沒移到肩膀以下,不要用力!

這篇文章裡附了兩段影片,上面的影片是由美國 2012 年奧運女子游泳隊總教練 Teri McKeever 解說,至於示範選手,我就不確定了。下面的影片是由日本選手萩原智子 (Hagiwara Tomoko) 示範。
 
Develop your backstroke technique

Karen Pickering
The Guardian, Saturday 10 January 2009


Karen Pickering demonstrating backstroke. Photograph: Tom Jenkins

Backstroke (or backcrawl) is the only competitive swimming stroke that starts in the water. The face remains out of the water, the disadvantage being that you can't see where you are going. Still, it is a great stroke for strengthening and toning the muscles without straining the back or neck. Here's how.

Body position: Sitting up in the water is the biggest mistake made in backstroke: if your hips drop too low, your body creates resistance which slows you down. Try and swim with your body close to the surface of the water - imagine you are lying in a bed with your head on a pillow - and push your tummy up to the ceiling, keeping your midriff flat.

Head: This stroke is led by the head which is fully supported by the water. The neck should be relaxed so that the head is held still. Common mistakes are to hold the head up too high causing strain or letting it fall to far backwards which can cause you to gulp water.

Breathing: Because the face is out of the water, breathing is generally easier than for other strokes. However, rhythm remains problematic for many. Breathe consistently and evenly.

Arms: The arms provide the power in backstroke. Elevate the right arm and lead with the thumb until it is level with the shoulder. Then, turn the palm outwards so that the little finger leads the up and over action. As the right arm is elevated, keep the left extended - it leads the way and helps balance the body. When the right arm moves towards the water, entering little finger first, bend the elbow and flex the wrist of the left arm, pushing it towards the feet. Make sure your hand, not your elbow, does the pushing. Keep pushing until the left elbow is straight before lifting it out of the body to begin another stroke.

Legs and feet: Although the arms provide power, the legs still contribute significantly to forward momentum. Try to keep legs close together throughout a stroke and use a long, shallow kick from the hips, not the knees. Keep your knees underwater and bent a little. Ankles should be floppy, not flexed, and turning the feet slightly inwards can help to achieve this.

© 2012 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved.

以下影片是日本選手萩原智子的示範。


article history:
updated: Oct. 6, 2012

台長: frank
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