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好文推薦: 聽說聾人也有文化公民權(cultural citizenship)

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文摘:聽說聾人也有文化公民權(cultural citizenship)
文:Xavier Tam (紫荊聚集會員、香港大學比較文學系哲學碩士)
 

(The English version follows the Chinese one)

 

文化公民權(cultural citizenship)泛指一個地方的人民可以自由及平等地參與文化產業活動(cultural industry),即人民可以成為文化產業的創作者(producer)、文化再現(cultural representation)的主體(subject)和受眾(audience)。

 

社會並不是由單一的群體所組成,而是基於各種因素而形成不同的圈子或群體。其中有些圈子或群體可能成為社會的主流,有些則成為社會上的小眾(minority)。社會上的小眾很多時候被主流排擠,而未能充份參與文化公民權。小眾在某些文化產業領域中(例如:電視及電影)往往未能參與其中。或者,在主流電視節目及電影所描繪小眾的角色不是刻版定型(stereotyping),便是配角。

 

作為小眾,聾人文化一直以來都被由聲音主導的主流視聽(audio-visual)文化所忽略,所以很多人以為聾人沒有自己的電影文化。有很多人認為主流電影中的字幕能夠應付聾人看電影的需要。這是一個錯誤的觀念。「聾人電影」(Deaf Cinema)所關注的是聾人的社群文化。而主流電影中的字幕只不過是權宜之計,並沒有認真對待聾人在文化身份認同方面的問題。

 

在華人社會中,「聾人電影」這個課題從來都沒有認真地被討論過。二零零九年,臺北市舉辦第二十一屆夏季聽障奧林匹克運動會。為了慶祝聽障奧運會在臺北市舉行,臺北市文化局便資助鄭芬芬導演拍攝電影《聽說》。《聽說》的主故事線講述送便當給聽障游泳隊的天闊(彭于晏飾)誤以為替聽障姊姊小朋(陳妍希飾)打點東西的秧秧(陳意涵飾)是聾人。其後,天闊跟秧秧談戀愛。天闊的父母得悉他們的兒子跟聾人談戀愛而感到不安。後來,天闊帶秧秧見他的父母。當被誤以為是聾人的秧秧開口說話時,兩老如釋重負。

 

片中的另一故事線是關於小朋參加聽障游泳隊訓練的辛酸史。雖然《聽說》全片的對話不乏手語,但它也不算是一套能夠讓聾人充份參與文化公民權的聾人電影。第一,聾人並沒有參與《聽說》全片的幕前幕後拍攝工作。第二,雖然《聽說》題材涉及聾人,但故事主角是天闊和秧秧,而不是小朋。第三,天闊的父母因為秧秧不是聾人而顯得格外高興。這些表現出電影包含了「健聽霸權」(Audism)的意識形態(ideology)。

 

《聽說》作為第一套以聾人作題材、並擁有大量手語對白而又能打入主流華人/語電影市場的電影確實是一個成功的嘗試。但我們又不能完全認同帶有「健聽霸權」色彩的《聽說》是一齣關注聾人社群文化的「聾人電影」。

 

第一屆香港國際聾人電影節即將開鑼。對於聾人來說,這個期待已久的電影節是一項盛事。這是一個能夠讓聾人成為文化產業和電影的創作者,主角和觀眾的平台。在香港,同性戀者社群擁有他們自己的同志影展;而在台灣,女性電影觀眾也有屬於她們的女性影展。聾人也可以擁有屬於自己的影展。聾人也可以擁有關於自己社群文化的電影。在華人/語電影世界,「聾人電影」終於正式在香港起錨!

 

 

 

Hear Me?! Deaf people also have cultural citizenship!

Xavier Tam
(Member of Hong Kong Bauhinias Deaf Club & MPhil in Comparative Literature, HKU)

 

Cultural citizenship generally refers to the freedom and equality of the citizens of a territory in participating in the cultural industry. In other words, citizens could be the producer, the subject of cultural representation as well as the audience of cultural industry.

 

Society is not made up by only one single group. Owing to many factors, different circles or groups are formed. Some of these circles or groups might become the mainstream of society while some become minority groups. Social minority groups are often excluded by the mainstream and fail to participate in the cultural industry (e.g. TV & film). Besides, the characters related to social minority groups in mainstream TV programs and films usually fall into either stereotypes or supporting roles.

 

As minority, the Deaf culture has long been neglected by the sound-dominating mainstream audio-visual culture. Hence many people think that Deaf people do not have their own film culture. Many people even believe that the subtitling in mainstream films could satisfy the needs of the Deaf audience. It is a misunderstanding, indeed. What the “Deaf Cinema” concerns is the community culture of the Deaf. The subtitling in mainstream films is expediential and does not concern the issue of cultural belongingness of the Deaf seriously.

 

In Chinese societies, the topic of “Deaf Cinema” is never closely examined. In 2009, the 21st Summer Deaflympics was held in Taipei City. To celebrate the Deaflympics, the Department of Cultural Affairs of the Taipei City Government funded Fen-fen Cheng for making the film Hear Me. The major plot of Hear Me tells the love story between Tian-kuo (Eddy Pang) and Yang-yang (Ivy Chen) while the subordinate plot shows us the ups and downs of Yang-yang’s elder sister Xiao-peng (Michelle Chen) in the swimming team for the Deaf. When the delivery boy Tian-kuo delivers lunchbox to Xiao-peng’s Deaf swimming team, he encounters Yang-yang who is helping Xiao-peng. So, Tian-kuo mistakes Yang-yang as a hearing-impaired girl. Knowing that their beloved son is in love with a person who can’t hear, Tian-Kuo’s parents are rather uneasy. When Yang-yang, who is mistakenly thought to be a Deaf girl, starts to talk, Tian-kuo’s parents are relieved.

 

Although we could observe the extensive use of sign language in the film, Hear Me could not be fully recognized as a Deaf film which allows Deaf people’s full exercise of cultural citizenship. Firstly, Deaf people did not participate in the crew of the film. Secondly, even though Hear Me is about Deaf people, the protagonists are Tian-kuo and Yang-yang, but not Xiao-peng. Thirdly, Tian-kuo’s parents are very happy when they realize that Yang-yang is not hearing-impaired.These features show that Hear Me is a film colored with Audism.

 

As a film featuring Deaf characters and extensive use of sign language in the dialogues, Hear Me serves as the first successful attempt in bringing the visibility of Deaf people into the mainstream Chinese film market. However, we could not simply praise the Audist film Hear Me as a Deaf film, which concerns the Deaf culture and community.

 

The First International Deaf Film Festival is coming soon. To the Deaf community in Hong Kong, the Film Festival is a jovial occasion. The Film Festival provides a platform for Deaf people becoming producers, protagonists and audiences of cultural industry. In Hong Kong, gay and lesbian people have their own Gay and Lesbian Film Festival; in Taiwan, female audiences have their own Women’s Film Festival. Deaf people could have the Deaf Film Festival and the Deaf Cinema about the Deaf community culture. In the world of Chinese cinema, the Deaf Cinema finally acts now.

 

 

 

http://www.hkidff.com/arts_20100903.html

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