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英文文法-邏輯關係(一)

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邏輯關係,重復,感情色彩

 

 

1          邏輯關係

1.A       因果關係

關鍵字

because , in that , for , therefore , thus , accordingly , consequently , given , hence ,

so ... that , so ... as to ... , if ... then ... ,

when ... then ... , as long as ...

in the sense that ...

 

1.       In part of the Arctic , the land grades into the landfast ice so ____ that you can walk off the coast and not know you are over the hidden sea.

permanently

imperceptibly

regularly

precariously

slightly

 

2.       The results of the experiments performed by Elizabeth Hazen and Rachel Brown were ____ not only because these results challenged old assumptions but also because they called the ____ methodology into question.

provocative ... prevailing

predictable ... contemporary

inconclusive ... traditional

intriguing ... projected

specious ... original

 

3.       Although Johnson ____ great enthusiasm for his employees' project , in reality his interest in the project was so ____ as to be almost nonexistent.

feigned ... perfunctory

 

4.       Broadway audiences have become inured to ____ and so ____ to be pleased as to make their ready ovations meaningless as an indicator of the quality of the production before them.

sentimentality ... reluctant

condescension ... disinclined

histrionics ... unlikely

cleverness ... eager

mediocrity ... desperate

 

5.       Any language is a conspiracy against experience in the sense that it is a collective attempt to ____ experience by reducing it into discrete parcels.

extrapolate

transcribe

complicate

amplify

manage

注:conspiracy可知空格爲貶義詞 ,

 

6.       Many of the earliest colonial houses that are still standing have been so modified and enlarged that the ____ design is no longer ____ .

 pertinent ... relevant

 intended ... necessary

 embellished ... attractive

 appropriate ... applicable

 initial ... discernible

注:no longer是對過去的狀態的否定。

 

7.       There are , as yet , no vegetation types or ecosystems whose study has been ____ to the extent that they no longer ____ ecologists.

perfected ... hinder

exhausted ... interest

prolonged ... require

prevented ... challenge

delayed ... benefit

 

8.       A leading chemist believes that many scientists have difficulty with stereochemistry because much of the relevant nomenclature is ____ , in that it combines concepts that should be kept ____ .

 obscure ... interrelated

 specialized ... intact

 subtle ... inviolate

 descriptive ... separate

 imprecise ... discrete

 

9.       During periods of social and cultural stability , many art academies are so firmly controlled by ____ that all real creative work must be done by the ____ .

 dogmatists ... disenfranchised

 managers ... reactionaries

 reformers ... dissatisfied

 imposters ... academicians

 specialists ... elite

 

10.   The English novelist William Thackeray considered the cult of the criminal so dangerous that he criticized Dickens' Oliver Twist for making the characters in the thieves' kitchen so ____ .

threatening

riveting

conniving

fearsome

irritating

 

11.   The legislators of 1563 realized the ____ of trying to regulate the flow of labor without securing its reasonable remuneration , and so the second part of the statute dealt with establishing wages.

intricacy

anxiety

futility

necessity

decadence

 

強調原因的句型:

關鍵字:

only by ignoring , only by failing to see , only by failing to recognize ...

 

12.   Only by ignoring decades of mismanagement and inefficiency could investors conclude that a fresh infusion of cash would provide anything more than a ____ solution to the company's financial woes.

fair

temporary

genuine

realistic

complete

注: anything more than 不僅僅是

        nothing more than 只不過是

        nothing little more than 只不過僅僅是

        nothing but 絕不是

 

13.   Roman historians who study the period 30 B.C. to A.D. 180 can ____ the "Augustan peace" only by failing to recognize that this peace in many respects resembled that of death.

decry

applaud

ridicule

demand

disprove

1.A       目的_手段_結果

關鍵字

in order to , by , for , result from , lead to ... , through , in terms of , on basis of

 

1.       The natural balance between prey and predator has been increasingly ____ , most frequently by human intervention.

celebrated

predicted

observed

disturbed

questioned

動詞 bythrough , in terms of , on basis of 動名詞或抽象名詞

 

2.       Although nothing could be further from the truth , freight railroads have been ____ of ____ the nation's shift from oil to coal by charging exorbitant fees to transport coal.

accused ... impeding

proud ... accelerating

guilty ... delaying

conscious ... contributing to

wary ...  interfering with

 

3.       Having no sense of moral obligation , Shipler was as little subject to the ____ of conscience after he acted as he was motivated by its ____ before he acted.

rewards ... chastisement

balm ... eloquence

reproaches ... prompting

ridicule ... allure

qualms ... atonement

 

4.       The reduction of noise has been ____ in terms of ____ its sources , but the alternative of canceling noise out by adding sound with the opposite wave pattern may be more useful in practice.

justified ... diffusing

accomplished ... tracking

conceived ... concealing

explained ... isolating

approached ... eliminating

注:in terms of重復by , 所以空格是adding sound的反義詞(這麽極端的思維?!)。

 

5.       Once a duckling has identified a parent , the instinctive bond becomes a powerful ____ for additional learning since , by ____ the parent , the duckling can acquire further information that is not genetically transmitted.

impulse ... surpassing

referent ... recognizing

force ... acknowledging

inspiration ... emulating

channel ... mimicking

 

6.       The ____ of gamblers' unsuccessful decision strategies is one ____ of the illusions built into games of chance in order to misguide players and take their money.

distortion ... outcome

restriction ... result

maintenance ... function

prediction ... accomplishment

demonstration ... prerequisite

 

7.       Edith Wharton sought in her memoir to present herself as having achieved a harmonious wholeness by having ____ the conflicting elements of her life.

affirmed

highlighted

reconciled

confined

identified

 

1.B       轉折關係

關鍵字

albeit , although , though , but , despite , even though , however , in spite of , nevertheless , nonetheless , notwithstanding , while , whatever , regardless , even if , even though , yet , and yet

 

8.       Nineteenth-century scholars , by examining earlier geometric Greek art , found that classical Greek art was not a magical ____ or a brilliant ____ blending Egyptian and Assyrian art , but was independently evolved by Greeks in Greece.

apparition ... amalgam

 

9.       Without the psychiatrist's promise of confidentiality , trust is ____ and the patient's communication limited; even though confidentiality can thus be seen to be precious in therapy , moral responsibility sometimes requires a willingness to ____ it.

implicit ... extend

ambiguous ... apply

prevented ... uphold

assumed ... examine

impaired ... sacrifice

 

10.   The newborn human infant is not a passive figure , nor an active one , but what might be called an actively ____ one , eagerly attentive as it is to sights and sounds.

adaptive

selective

inquisitive

receptive

intuitive

注:activelypassive反義 , 所以空格應該與active反義 , 爲消極被動之意。

 

1.       Even though formidable winters are the norm in the Dakotas , many people were unprepared for the ____ of the blizzard of 1888.

inevitability

ferocity

importance

probability

mildness

 

2.       Although the architect's concept at first sounded too ____ to be ____ , his careful analysis of every aspect of the project convinced the panel that the proposed building was indeed , structurally feasible.

mundane ... attractive

eclectic ... appealing

grandiose ... affordable

innovative ... ignored

visionary ... practicable

 

3.       Some paleontologists debate whether the diversity of species has ____ since the Cambrian period , or whether imperfections in the fossil record only suggest greater diversity today , while in actuality there has been either ____ or decreased diversity.

changed ... escalation

increased ... stasis

expanded ... discontinuity

declined ... reduction

improved ... deviation

 

4.       The labor union and the company's management , despite their long history of unfailingly acerbic disagreement on nearly every issue , have nevertheless reached an unexpectedly ____ , albeit still tentative , agreement on next year's contract.

swift

onerous

hesitant

reluctant

conclusive

注:空格和tentative同時修飾一個名詞 , 並且有轉折關係 , 則此時爲褒貶轉折。所以不能是conclusive(對立面轉折)。

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